If only ‘MOUSE’ was not invented; this guy pioneered the term bootstrapping in twentieth century!!!

He was an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer. He is best known for his work on the challenges of human–computer interaction, particularly while at his Augmentation Research Center Lab in SRI International, resulting in the invention of the computer mouse, and the development of hypertext, networked computers, and precursors to graphical user interfaces. These were demonstrated at The Mother of All Demos in 1968. His Law, the observation that the intrinsic rate of human performance is exponential, is named after him.
In the early 1950s, he decided that instead of “having a steady job” (such as his position at NASA’s Ames Research Center) he would focus on making the world a better place, especially through the use of computers. He was therefore a committed, vocal proponent of the development and use of computers and computer networks to help cope with the world’s increasingly urgent and complex problems. He embedded a set of organizing principles in his lab, which he termed “bootstrapping strategy”. He designed the strategy to accelerate the rate of innovation of his lab.


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This son on a locomotive driver initially interested in lock-smithy changed the way of commute via road !!!

He was a German engine designer and car engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the petrol-powered automobile, and together with Bertha, pioneering founder of the coveted automobile manufacturer. He received a patent for his work and all the processes that made the internal combustion engine feasible for use in an automobile. In 1879, his first engine patent was granted to him, and in 1886, he was granted a patent for his first automobile.
He was born in Mühlburg, now a borough of Karlsruhe, Baden, which is part of modern Germany, to a locomotive driver. Despite living in near poverty, his mother strove to give him a good education. He attended the local Grammar School in Karlsruhe and was a prodigious student.
He had originally focused his studies on locksmithing, but eventually followed his father’s steps toward locomotive engineering.


Read more & watch the video…: Gyaat:This son on a locomotive driver initially interested in lock-smithy changed the way of commute via road !!!

We need more lions like HIM who believe in self reliance and self sufficiency !!!

He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari meaning The Lion of Punjab also known as “Sher-E- Punjab” in Hindi. He was also associated with activities of Punjab National Bank and Lakshmi Insurance Company in their early stages. He was part of the Lal Bal Pal trio.
He was born in Dhudike which is now in Moga district, Punjab on 28 January 1865. His father, Radha Krishan, was an Urdu teacher.
He advocated the Swadeshi movement involving the boycott of all imported items and the use of Indian-made goods in 1907.
The last years of the nineteenth century, saw a radical sensibility emerge among some Indian Intellectuals. This position burst onto the national all-India scene in 1905 with the Swadeshi movement – the term is usually rendered as “self reliance” or “self sufficiency”.


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The society that has shown the world through fresh eyes; has amazing perspective depicted through NGC !!!

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world. The National Geographic Society began as a club for an elite group of academics and wealthy patrons interested in travel. On January 13, 1888, 33 explorers and scientists gathered at the Cosmos Club, a private club then located on Lafayette Square in Washington, D.C., to organize “a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge.”
Its interests include geography, archaeology and natural science, the promotion of environmental and historical conservation, and the study of world culture and history. The National Geographic Society’s historical mission is “to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge while promoting the conservation of the world’s cultural, historical, and natural resources.
The Society has published maps, atlases, filmstrips, and numerous books. It also lends its license to other publishers, for example to Thames & Kosmos for a line of science kits. In October 2007, National Geographic created a new Global Media group composed of its magazine, book publishing, television, film, music, radio, digital media and maps units.


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SAMVIDHAAN: The constitution of India!!!!

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 448 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 98 amendments (out of 120 Constitution Amendment Bills). Besides the English version, there is an official Hindi translation. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is widely regarded as the architect of the Indian Constitution.
The Constitution, in its current form (September 2012), consists of a preamble, 25 parts containing 448 articles, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 98 amendments to date.
The individual Articles of the Constitution are grouped together into the following Parts:

Preamble
Part I – Union and its Territory
Part II – Citizenship.
Part III – Fundamental Rights.
Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy.
Part IVA – Fundamental Duties.
Part V – The Union.
Part VI – The States.
Part VII – States in the B part of the First schedule(Repealed).
Part VIII – The Union Territories
Part IX – The Panchayats.
Part IXA – The Municipalities.
Part IXB – The Co-operative Societies.
Part X – The scheduled and Tribal Areas
Part XI – Relations between the Union and the States.
Part XII – Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits
Part XIII – Trade and Commerce within the territory of India
Part XIV – Services Under the Union, the States.
Part XIVA – Tribunals.
Part XV – Elections
Part XVI – Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes.
Part XVII – Languages
Part XVIII – Emergency Provisions
Part XIX – Miscellaneous
Part XX – Amendment of the Constitution
Part XXI – Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions
Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals


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This father of the Nuclear programme had a long journey uplifting India’s status to higher technological advancements & research!!!

Colloquially known as “father of Indian nuclear programme”, He was the founding director of two well-known research institutions, namely the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) and the Trombay Atomic Energy Establishment (now named after him); both sites were the cornerstone of Indian development of nuclear weapons which he also supervised as its director.
Conducting experiments on particles which also released tremendous amount of radiation, was his lifelong passion, and his leading edge research and experiments brought great laurels to Indian physicists who particularly switched their fields to nuclear physics, one of the most notable being Piara Singh Gill.
Tata Trust for establishing ‘a vigorous school of research in fundamental physics’. In his proposal he wrote :
“ There is at the moment in India no big school of research in the fundamental problems of physics, both theoretical and experimental. There are, however, scattered all over India competent workers who are not doing as good work as they would do if brought together in one place under proper direction. It is absolutely in the interest of India to have a vigorous school of research in fundamental physics, for such a school forms the spearhead of research not only in less advanced branches of physics but also in problems of immediate practical application in industry.
If much of the applied research done in India today is disappointing or of very inferior quality it is entirely due to the absence of sufficient number of outstanding pure research workers who would set the standard of good research and act on the directing boards in an advisory capacity … Moreover, when nuclear energy has been successfully applied for power production in say a couple of decades from now, India will not have to look abroad for its experts but will find them ready at hand. I do not think that anyone acquainted with scientific development in other countries would deny the need in India for such a school as I propose.
The subjects on which research and advanced teaching would be done would be theoretical physics, especially on fundamental problems and with special reference to cosmic rays and nuclear physics, and experimental research on cosmic rays. It is neither possible nor desirable to separate nuclear physics from cosmic rays since the two are closely connected theoretically.”


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The Patriot who’s seldom acknowledged by the country!!!

He came fourth in the ICS examination and was selected but he did not want to work under an alien government which would mean serving the British. As he stood on the verge of taking the plunge by resigning from the Indian Civil Service in 1921, he wrote to his elder brother Sarat: “Only on the soil of sacrifice and suffering can we raise our national edifice”. Finally, he resigned from his civil service job on 23 April 1921 and returned to India.
He was imprisoned by the British authorities eleven times. His famous motto was: “Give me blood and I will give you freedom”. Jai Hind, or, “Glory to India!” was another slogan used by him and later adopted by the Government of India and the Indian Armed Forces.
His stance did not change with the outbreak of the Second World War, which he saw as an opportunity to take advantage of British weakness. At the outset of the war, he left India, travelling to the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, seeking an alliance with each of them to attack the British government in India.
With Imperial Japanese assistance, he re-organised and later led the Azad Hind Fauj or Indian National Army (INA), formed with Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from British Malaya, Singapore, and other parts of Southeast Asia, against British forces. With Japanese monetary, political, diplomatic and military assistance, he formed the Azad Hind Government in exile, and regrouped and led the Indian National Army in failed military campaigns against the allies at Imphal and in Burma. Swami Vivekananda’s teachings on universalism, his nationalist thoughts and his emphasis on social service and reform had all inspired him   from his very young days. He formed ,”The Provisional Government of Free India” , or, more simply, Free India(Azad Hind), was an Indian provisional government established in Singapore in 1943 and was supported by Japan. Azad Hind was a part of a political movement originating in the 1940s outside of India with the purpose of allying with Axis powers to free India from British Rule.
The true judgement of success or failure of the movement remains open to historians. However, the true extent to which the INA’s activities influenced the decision to leave India is mirrored by the views of Clement Attlee, the British prime minister at the time of India’s Independence. Attlee cites several reasons, the most important of which were the INA activities of his, which weakened the very foundation of the British Empire in India, and the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny which made the British realise that the support of the Indian armed forces could no longer be relied upon.


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This doctor invented Basketball in order to calm down students of a rowdy class!!!

James Naismith (November 6, 1861 – November 28, 1939) was a Canadian American sports coach and innovator. He invented the sport of basketball in 1891. He wrote the original basketball rulebook, founded the University of Kansas basketball program, and lived to see basketball adopted as an Olympic demonstration sport in 1904 and as an official event at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, as well as the birth of both the National Invitation Tournament (1938) and the NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Championship (1939).
At Springfield YMCA, Naismith struggled with a rowdy class which was confined to indoor games throughout the harsh New England winter and thus was perpetually short-tempered. Under orders from Dr. Luther Gulick, head of Springfield YMCA Physical Education, Naismith was given 14 days to create an indoor game that would provide an “athletic distraction”: Gulick demanded that it would not take up much room, could help its track athletes to keep in shape and explicitly emphasized to “make it fair for all players and not too rough.”


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In order to save his children from his unpleasant experiences on the war-front, this civil engineer created Dr. Dolittle!!!

Hugh John Lofting (14 January 1886 – 26 September 1947) was a British author, trained as a civil engineer, who created the character of Doctor Dolittle, one of the classics of children’s literature.
He travelled widely as a civil engineer, before enlisting in the Irish Guards regiment of the British Army to serve in the First World War. Not wishing to write to his children about the brutality of the war, he wrote imaginative letters which later became the foundation of the successful Doctor Dolittle novels for children.
The series has been adapted for film and television many times, for stage twice, and also for radio. His other writing works include, “The Story of Mrs Tubbs (1923) and Tommy, Tilly, and Mrs. Tubbs (1936) , Porridge Poetry (1924), Noisy Nora (1929) & The Twilight of Magic (1930) .


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This mathematician’s brother did famous research in diabetes through dogs!!!

Oskar Minkowski (13 January 1858 – 18 July 1931) held a professorship at the University of Breslau and is most famous for his research on diabetes.
Minkowski worked with Josef von Mering on the study of diabetes at the University of Strasbourg. Their landmark study in 1889 in dogs induced diabetes by removing their pancreas. It was Minkowski who performed the operation and made the crucial link to recognize that the symptoms of the treated dogs were due to diabetes. Read more: Gyaat:This mathematician’s brother did famous research in diabetes through dogs!!!