HAPPY SCIENCE DAY !!!

National Science Day is celebrated in India on 28 February each year to mark the discovery of the Raman effect by Indian physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman on 28 February 1928. For his discovery, Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930. In 1986, the National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC) asked the Government of India to designate 28 February as National Science Day. The event is now celebrated all over the country in schools, colleges, universities and other academic, scientific, technical, medical and research institutions. On the occasion of the first National Science Day on 30 May 2000, the NCSTC announced institution of the National Science Popularization awards for recognizing outstanding efforts in the area of science communication and popularization. 

Sir C. V. Raman worked at Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata, West Bengal, India during 1907 to 1933 on various topics of Physics making discovery of the celebrated effect on scattering of light in 1928, which bears his name and that brought many accolades including the Nobel Prize in 1930. The American Chemical Society designated the ‘Raman Effect’ as an International Historic Chemical Landmark in 2013. 

National science day is celebrated as one of the main science festivals in India every year during which students of the schools and colleges demonstrates various science projects as well as national and state science institutions demonstrates their latest researches. The celebration also includes public speech, radio-TV talk shows, exhibitions of science movie, science exhibition based on themes and concepts, watching night sky, live projects and researches demonstration, debates, quiz competitions, lectures, science models exhibitions and many more activities. 

It is celebrated every year with immense passion at the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (also called GMRT) at Khodad which is a worldwide famous telescope getting operated at low radio frequencies by the NCRA (National Centre for Radio Astrophysics) established by the TIFR (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research). Variety of activities is organized by the NCRA and GMRT at the ceremony of national science day celebration in order to recognize their leading research activities in the field of radio astronomy and astrophysics. Variety of programmes is also held for the common public and student community to popularize the science and technology in the country. The minister of science and technology give a message through his speech at this day to the students, scientists, researchers and general public of the nation.

National Science Day is being celebrated every year to widely spread a message about the significance of scientific applications in the daily life of the people. To display the all the activities, efforts and achievements in the field of science for human welfare. To discuss all the issues and implement new technologies for the development of the science. To give an opportunity to the scientific minded citizens in the country. To encourage the people as well as popularize the Science and Technology.

The theme of this year would be “Fostering Scientific Temper” & “Energy conservation”.

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The runaway lad whose established brand was named the most valuable brand in the world for six consecutive years !!!

Louis Vuitton (4 August 1821 – 27 February 1892) was a French businessman. He was the founder of the Louis Vuitton brand of leather goods now owned by LVMH. Prior to this, he had been appointed as trunk-maker to Empress Eugénie de Montijo, wife of NapoleonDesigner, entrepreneur, terminology wiz, Louis Vuitton was born on August 4, 1821, in Anchay, France. Descended from a long-established working-class family, Vuitton’s ancestors were joiners, carpenters, farmers and milliners. His father, Xavier Vuitton, was a farmer, and his mother, Corinne Gaillard, was a milliner. Vuitton’s mother died when he was only 10 years old, and his father soon remarried. As legend has it, Vuitton’s new stepmother was as severe and wicked as any fairy-tale Cinderella villain. 

 A stubborn and headstrong child, antagonized by his stepmother and bored by the provincial life in Anchay, Vuitton resolved to run away for the bustling capital of Paris. On the first day of tolerable weather in the spring of 1835, at the age of 14, Vuitton left home alone and on foot, bound for Paris. He traveled for more than two years, taking odd jobs to feed himself along the way and staying wherever he could find shelter, as he walked the 292-mile trek from his native Anchay to Paris.He arrived in 1837, at the age of 16, to a capital city in the thick of an industrial revolution that had produced a litany of contradictions: awe-inspiring grandeur and abject poverty, rapid growth and devastating epidemics. 

 The teenage Vuitton was taken in as an apprentice in the workshop of a successful box-maker and packer named Monsieur Marechal. In 19th-century Europe, box-making and packing was a highly respectable and urbane craft. A box-maker and packer custom-made all boxes to fit the goods they stored and personally loaded and unloaded the boxes. It took Vuitton only a few years to stake out a reputation amongst Paris’s fashionable class as one of the city’s premier practitioners of his new craft.

 Napoleon III’s wife, the Empress of France, was Eugenie de Montijo, a Spanish countess. Upon marrying the Emperor, she hired Vuitton as her personal box-maker and packer and charged him with “packing the most beautiful clothes in an exquisite way.” She provided a gateway for Vuitton to a class of elite and royal clientele who would seek his services for the duration of his life. In 1854, Vuitton married Clemence-Emilie Parriaux, who was only 17-years-old. Shortly after he left the shop he was apprenticing at and opened his own box-making and packing workshop in Paris. Outside the shop a sign hung reading “Securely packs the most fragile objects. Specialising in packing fashions.”  

 Four years later in 1858, Vuitton introduced his revolutionary stackable rectangular shaped trunks to a market that only had rounded tops. This demand spurred his expansion into a larger workshop outside of Paris. He continued to work until his death at the age of 70 on February 27, 1892. After his death, his son George Vuitton took over control of the company.

 Louis Vuitton Malletier, commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton or shortened to LV, is a French fashion house founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label’s LV monogram appears on most of its products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, shoes, watches, jewelry, accessories, sunglasses, and books. Louis Vuitton is one of the world’s leading international fashion houses; it sells its products through standalone boutiques, lease departments in high-end department stores, and through the e-commerce section of its website. For six consecutive years (2006–2012) Louis Vuitton has been named the world’s most valuable luxury brand. Its 2012 valuation was 25.9 billion USD.

His accidential discovery changed the course of world’s breakfast habits !!!

This idea for corn flakes began by accident when Kellogg and his younger brother, Will Keith Kellogg, left some cooked wheat to sit while they attended to some pressing matters at the sanitarium. When they returned, they found that the wheat had gone stale, but being on a strict budget, they decided to continue to process it by forcing it through rollers, hoping to obtain long sheets of the dough. To their surprise, what they found instead were flakes, which they toasted and served to their patients. This event occurred on August 8, 1894, and a patent for “Flaked Cereals and Process of Preparing Same” was filed on May 31, 1895, and issued on April 14, 1896.

 The accidental legacy of corn flakes goes back to the late 19th century, when a team of Seventh-day Adventists began to develop new food to adhere to the vegetarian diet recommended by the church. Members of the group experimented with a number of different grains, including wheat, oats, rice, barley, and corn. In 1894, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, the superintendent of The Battle Creek Sanitarium in Michigan and an Adventist, used these recipes as part of a strict vegetarian regimen for his patients, which also included no alcohol, tobacco, or caffeine.

 The diet he imposed consisted entirely of bland foods. A follower of Sylvester Graham, the inventor of graham crackers and graham bread, Kellogg believed that spicy or sweet foods would increase passions.

 The flakes of grain, which the Kelloggs called granose, were a very popular food among the patients. The brothers then experimented with other flakes from other grains. In 1906, Will Keith Kellogg, who served as the business manager of the sanitarium, decided to try to mass-market the new food. At his new company, Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company, he added sugar to the flakes to make them more palatable to a mass audience, but this caused a rift between his brother and him.

 To increase sales, in 1909, he added a special offer, the Funny Jungleland Moving Pictures Booklet, which was made available to anyone who bought two boxes of the cereal. This same premium was offered for 22 years. At the same time, Kellogg also began experimenting with new grain cereals to expand his product line. Rice Krispies, his next great hit, first went on sale in 1928.

 Corn flakes are produced in significant quantities at the Trafford Park factory in Manchester, England, which is also the largest cereal factory in the world.

 A former patient of the Battle Creek Sanitarium named C. W. Post started a rival company, as well as the major other brand of corn flakes in the United States, called Post Toasties. Australia’s Sanitarium also manufactures their own brand of corn flakes called Skippy corn flakes. In addition, many generic brands of corn flakes are produced by various manufacturers.

 In addition, Sainsbury’s, Tesco, Morrisons, Asda Co-operative, etc. have brought out similar products based on cornflakes. A variety of corn flakes that is sold in the United Kingdom is one where honey and nuts have been added to the corn flakes – this is known as “honey nut corn flakes”.

The versatile person made a revolver that fired without reloading out of a decision and determination at age of 15 !!

Samuel Colt (July 19, 1814 – January 10, 1862) was an American inventor and industrialist from Hartford, Connecticut. He founded Colt’s Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company (today, Colt’s Manufacturing Company), and made the mass production of the revolver commercially viable. Colt’s first two business ventures — producing firearms in Paterson, New Jersey, and making underwater mines — ended in disappointment. Colt’s manufacturing methods were at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution. His use of interchangeable parts helped him become one of the first to exploit the assembly line. Moreover, his innovative use of art, celebrity endorsements and corporate gifts to promote his wares made him a pioneer in the fields of advertising, product placement and mass marketing, although he was criticized during and after his life for promoting his arms through bribes, threats and monopoly.

 Samuel Colt was born in Hartford, to Christopher Colt (1777-1850), a farmer who had moved his family to the city after he became a businessman, and Sarah Colt, née Caldwell. His mother’s father, Major John Caldwell, had been an officer in the Continental Army and one of Samuel’s earliest possessions was his maternal grandfather’s flintlock pistol. At age 11, Colt was indentured to a farmer in Glastonbury, where he did chores and attended school. Here he was introduced to the Compendium of Knowledge, a scientific encyclopedia that he preferred to read rather than his Bible studies. Its articles on Robert Fulton and gunpowder motivated Colt throughout his life. He discovered that other inventors in the Compendium had accomplished things that were once deemed impossible, and he wanted to do the same. Later, after hearing soldiers talk about the success of the Double rifle double-barreled rifle and the impossibility of a gun that could shoot five or six times without reloading, Colt decided that he would create the “impossible gun”.

 In 1829, at the age of 15, Colt began working in his father’s textile plant in Ware, Massachusetts, where he had access to tools, materials, and the factory workers’ expertise. Following the encyclopedia, Samuel built a homemade galvanic cell and advertised as a Fourth of July event in that year that he would blow up a raft on Ware Pond using underwater explosives; although the raft was missed, the explosion was still impressive. Sent to boarding school, he amused his classmates with pyrotechnics. In 1830, a July 4 accident caused a fire that ended his schooling, and his father then sent him off to learn the seaman’s trade. On a voyage to Calcutta on board the brig Corvo, he noticed that regardless of which way the ship’s wheel was spun, each spoke always came in direct line with a clutch that could be set to hold it. He later said that this gave him the idea for the revolver. 

 On the Corvo, Colt made a wooden model of a pepperbox revolver out of scrap wood. It differed from other pepperbox revolvers at the time in that it would allow the shooter to rotate the cylinder by the action of cocking the hammer and a pawl locking the cylinder in place, rather than rotating the barrels by hand and hoping for proper indexing and alignment.He had learned about nitrous oxide(laughing gas) from the factory chemist in his father’s textile plant, so he took a portable lab on the road and earned a living performing laughing gas demonstrations across the United States and Canada, billing himself as “the Celebrated Dr. Coult of New-York, London and Calcutta”. Colt conceived of himself as a man of science and thought if he could enlighten people about a new idea like nitrous oxide, he could in turn make people more receptive to his new idea concerning a revolver. He started his lectures on street corners and soon worked his way up to lecture halls and museums. As ticket sales declined, Colt realized that “serious” museum lectures were not what the people wanted to pay money to see and that it was dramatic stories of salvation and redemption the public craved.

 Having some money saved and keeping his idea alive of being an inventor as opposed to a “medicine man”, Colt made arrangements to begin building guns using proper gunsmiths from Baltimore, Maryland. Heabandoned the idea of a multiple barreled revolver and opted for a new design, a rotating cylinder which would come into alignment with a single barrel due to his idea of a pawl engaging the cylinder and holding it in place.He sought the counsel of a friend of his father, Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, who loaned him $300 and advised him to perfect his prototype before applying for a patent. Colt hired a gunsmith by the name of John Pearson to build his revolver. Over the next few years Colt and Pearson fought over money, but the design improved and in 1835 Colt was ready to apply for his US patent. Ellsworth was now the superintendent of the US Patent Office and advised Colt to file for foreign patents first as a prior US patent would keep Colt from filing a patent in Great Britain. In August 1835, Colt left for England and France to secure his foreign patent.

 Colt was the first American manufacturer to use art as a marketing tool when he hired Catlin to prominently display Colt firearms in his paintings. He employed an effective marketing program which comprised sales promotion, publicity, product sampling, and public relations. He used the press to his own advantage by giving revolvers to editors, prompting them to report “all the accidents that occur to the Sharps & other humbug arms”, and listing incidents where Colt weapons had been “well used against bears, Indians, Mexicans, etc”. In 2006, Samuel Colt was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

Link for revolver: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolver

This runner started to work in father’s rival business; went on to co-create probably biggest shoe brand ever !!!

Philip Hampson “Phil” Knight (born February 24, 1938) is an American business magnate and philanthropist. A native of Oregon, he is the co-founder and chairman of Nike, Inc., and previously served as the chief executive officer of Nike. In 2013, Forbes named Knight the 56th richest person in the world and the 24th richest in America, with an estimated net worth of US$16.3 billion. Phil Knight is the son of lawyer turned newspaper publisher, William W. Knight, and his wife Lota (Hatfield) Knight. When his father refused to give him a summer job at his newspaper, believing that his son should find work on his own, Phil went to the rival Oregonian, where he worked the night shift tabulating sports scores every morning and running home the full seven miles.”

 Knight continued his education at the University of Oregon in Eugene, where he is a graduate brother of Phi Gamma Delta (“FIJI”) fraternity, was a sports reporter for the Oregon Daily Emerald, and earned a journalism degree in 1959. Before Blue Ribbon Sports, later Nike, took off, Knight was first a Certified Public Accountant with Price Waterhouse, and then Coopers & Lybrand; and an assistant professor of business administration at Portland State University.

 Immediately after graduating from Oregon, Knight enlisted in the Army and served one year on active duty and seven years in the Army Reserve. After the year of active duty, he enrolled at Stanford Graduate School of Business. In Frank Shallenberger’s Small Business class, Knight developed a love affair with something besides sports — he discovered he was an entrepreneur. Knight recalls in a Stanford Magazine article: “That class was an ‘aha!’ moment … Shallenberger defined the type of person who was an entrepreneur–and I realized he was talking to me. I remember after saying to myself: ‘This is really what I would like to do.’ 

 ” In this class, Knight needed to create a business plan. His paper, “Can Japanese Sports Shoes Do to German Sports Shoes What Japanese Cameras Did to German Cameras?,” essentially was the premise to his foray into selling running shoes. He graduated with a master’s degree in business administration from the school in 1962.

 Knight set out on a trip around the world after graduation, during which he made a stop in KobeJapan, in November 1962. It was there he discovered the Tiger-brand running shoes, manufactured in Kobe by the Onitsuka Co. So impressed with the quality and low cost, Knight made a cold call on Mr. Onitsuka, who agreed to meet with him. By the end of the meeting, Knight had secured Tiger distribution rights for the western United States.When Knight finally received the shoe samples, he mailed two pairs to Bill Bowerman at the University of Oregon hoping to gain a sale and an influential endorsement. 

 To Knight’s surprise, Bowerman not only ordered the Tiger shoes but also offered to become a partner with Knight and would provide some design ideas for better running shoes. The two men shook hands on a partnership on January 25, 1964, the birth date of Blue Ribbon Sports, forerunner to Nike. In 1977, together with Bill Bowerman and Geoff Hollister, Knight founded an American running team called Athletics West.

 Knight’s first sales were made out of a now legendary green Plymouth Valiant automobile at track meets across the Pacific Northwest. By 1969, these early sales allowed Knight to leave his accountant job and work full-time for Blue Ribbon Sports.  The company was founded on January 25, 1964, as Blue Ribbon Sports, by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight, and officially became Nike, Inc. on May 30, 1971. The company takes its name from Nike, the Greek goddess of victory.

 Nike, Inc. is an American multinational corporation that is engaged in the design, development, manufacturing and worldwide marketing and selling of footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories and services. The company is headquartered near BeavertonOregon, in the Portland metropolitan area, and is one of only two Fortune 500 companies headquartered in Oregon. It is one of the world’s largest suppliers of athletic shoes and apparel and a major manufacturer of sports equipment, with revenue in excess of US$24.1 billion in its fiscal year 2012 (ending May 31, 2012). As of 2012, it employed more than 44,000 people worldwide. The brand alone is valued at $10.7 billion, making it the most valuable brand among sports businesses.