Celebrating this new year with EXTRA STOUT…CHEERS MATE !!!

Guinness is a popular Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness (1725–1803) at St. James’s Gate, Dublin. Guinness is one of the most successful beer brands worldwide. It is brewed in almost 60 countries and is available in over 100. A feature of the product is the burnt flavour that is derived from roasted unmalted barley. For many years a portion of aged brew was blended with freshly brewed beer to give a sharp lactic flavour. Although the Guinness palate still features a characteristic “tang”. The draught beer’s thick, creamy head comes from mixing the beer with nitrogen when poured. It is popular with Irish people both in Ireland and abroad.

 Studies claim that Guinness can be beneficial to the heart. Researchers found that “‘antioxidant compounds’ in the Guinness, similar to those found in certain fruits and vegetables, are responsible for the health benefits because they slow down the deposit of harmful cholesterol on the artery walls.”

 The company has had its headquarters in London from 1932 onwardsArthur Guinness started brewing ales from 1759 at the St. James’s Gate Brewery, Dublin. On 31 December 1759 he signed a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum for the unused brewery. Ten years later, on 19 May 1769, Guinness first exported his ale: he shipped six-and-a-half barrels to Great Britain.

Making the product requires knowledge in the sciences of microbiology, mycology, bacteriology, and thermodynamicsThe breweries pioneered several quality control effortsThe brewery hired the statistician William Sealy Gosset in 1899, who achieved lasting fame under the pseudonym “Student” for techniques developed for Guinness, particularly Student’s t-distribution and the even more commonly known Student’s t-test.

 It is also known as a “meal in a glass”Until the late 1950s Guinness was still racked into wooden casks. In the late 1950s and early 1960s aluminium kegs began replacing the wooden casks; these were nicknamed “iron lungs”. Draught Guinness and its canned counterpart contain nitrogen (N2) as well as carbon dioxide. Nitrogen is less soluble than carbon dioxide, which allows the beer to be put under high pressure without making it fizzy.

 “Stout” originally referred to a beer’s strength, but eventually shifted meaning toward body and colour.

Arthur Guinness started selling the dark beer porter in 1778. The first Guinness beers to use the term were Single Stout and Double Stout in the 1840s. Throughout the bulk of its history, Guinness produced ‘only three variations of a single beer type: porter or single stout, double or extra and foreign stout for export’. In October 1886 Guinness became a public company, and was averaging sales of 1,138,000 barrels a year.

 Guinness has also been referred to as “the black stuff” and as a “Pint of Plain” – referred to in the famous refrain of Flann O’Brien’s poem “The Workman’s Friend”: “A pint of plain is your only man.” 

 The production of Guinness, as with many beers, involves the use of isinglass made from fish. Isinglass is used as a fining agent for settling out suspended matter in the vat. The isinglass is retained in the floor of the vat but it is possible that minute quantities might be carried over into the beer.

 

Guinness stout is made from water, barley, roast malt extract, hops, and brewer’s yeast. A portion of the barley is roasted to give Guinness its dark colour and characteristic taste. It is pasteurised and filtered. 

Contemporary Guinness Draught and Extra Stout are weaker than they were in the 19th century, when they had an original gravity of over 1.070. Foreign Extra Stout and Special Export Stout, with abv of 7.5% and 9% respectively, are perhaps closest to the original in character. Although Guinnessmay appear to be black, it is officially a very dark shade of rubyBottle conditioned Guinness Extra Stout was available in the UK until 1994, and in Ireland until early 2000.

When Guinness is poured, the gas bubbles appear to travel downwards in the glass. The effect is attributed to drag; bubbles that touch the walls of a glass are slowed in their travel upwards.  Guinness is frequently used as an ingredient in recipes, often to add a seemingly authentic Irish element to the menus of Irish-themed pubs in the United States, where it is stirred into everything from french toast to beef stew. A popular, authentic, Irish course featuring Guinness is the “Guinness and Steak Pie.” The recipe includes many common Irish herbs, as well as beef brisket, cheeses, and a can of Guinness.

Wishing a “haC++y” birthday !!!

Bjarne Stroustrup (Born 30 December 1950) is a Danish computer scientist, most notable for the creation and development of the widely used C++ programming language. He is currently Professor and holder of the College of Engineering Chair in Computer Science at Texas A&M University.

According to Stroustrup,”the name signifies the evolutionary nature of the changes from C”. During C++’s development period, the language had been referred to as “new C”, then “C with Classes”. The final name is credited to Rick Mascitti (mid-1983) and was first used in December 1983. When Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit. It stems from C’s “++” operator (which increments the value of a variable) and a common naming convention of using “+” to indicate an enhanced computer program. A joke goes that the name itself has a bug: due to the use of post-increment, which increments the value of the variable but evaluates to the unincremented value, C++ is no better than C, and the pre-increment ++C form should have been used instead.  

 In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, providing an important reference to the language, as there was not yet an official standard.The first commercial implementation of C++ was released in October of the same year. Release 2.0 of C++ came in 1989 and the updated second edition of The C++ Programming Language was released in 1991. New features included multiple inheritance, abstract classes, static member functions, const member functions, and protected members. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published. This work became the basis for the future standard.

 Philosophy

Throughout C++’s life, its development and evolution has been informally governed by a set of rules that its evolution should follow:

  • It must be driven by actual problems and its features should be useful immediately in real world programmes.
  • Every feature should be implementable (with a reasonably obvious way to do so).
  • Programmers should be free to pick their own programming style, and that style should be fully supported by C++.
  • Allowing a useful feature is more important than preventing every possible misuse of C++.
  • It should provide facilities for organising programmes into well defined separate parts, and provide facilities for combining separately developed parts.
  • No implicit violations of the type system (but allow explicit violations that have been explicitly asked for by the programmer).
  • Make user created types have equal support and performance to built in types.
  • Any features that you do not use you do not pay for (e.g. in performance).
  • There should be no language beneath C++ (except assembly language).
  • C++ should work alongside other pre-existing programming languages, rather than being part of its own separate and incompatible programming environment.
  • If what the programmer wants to do is unknown, allow the programmer to specify(provide manual control).

Stroustrup began developing C++ in 1978 (then called “C with Classes”), and, in his own words, “invented C++, wrote its early definitions, and produced its first implementation… chose and formulated the design criteria for C++, designed all its major facilities, and was responsible for the processing of extension proposals in the C++ standards committee.” Stroustrup also wrote what many consider to be the standard textbook for the language, The C++ Programming Language.

Stroustrup was the head of AT&T Lab’s Large-scale Programming Research department, from its creation until late 2002. Stroustrup was elected member of the National Academy of Engineering in 2004. He is a Fellow of the ACM (1994) and an IEEE Fellow.

Stroustrup has a master’s degree in mathematics and computer science (1975) from Aarhus University, Denmark, and a Ph.D. in computer science (1979) from the University of Cambridge, England, where he was a student at Churchill College. His thesis advisor in Cambridge was David Wheeler.

Understanding the YEAR before it changes !!!!

29 December 2013 at 22:15

With the new year around the corner; having celebrated it for the eternity welcomed by people, the term made me restless. What exactly is a year; where did it come from ? This is what I found out: Read on…

 The word “year” is also used of periods loosely associated but not strictly identical with either the astronomical or the calendar year, such as the seasonal year, the fiscal year or the academic year, etc.

The term year can mean the orbital period of any Planet, Venus completes its own orbit. The term is also applied more broadly to any long period or cycle, such as the Great YearA year is the Orbital period of the Earth moving around the Sun. For an observer on the Earth, this corresponds to the period it takes the Sun to complete one course throughout the Zodiac along the elliptic. In astronomy, the Julian year is a unit of time, defined as 365.25 Days of 86400 SI Seconds each, however, there is no universally accepted symbol for the year as a unit of time.

 The International System of Units does not propose one. A common abbreviation in international use is (for Latin annus), in English y or yr. Due to the Earth’s axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, hours of daylight, and consequently vegetation and fertility. Generally four seasons are considered: Summer, winter, autumn and Spring.

TYPES OF YEARS 

  • A fiscal or financial year is a 12-month period used for calculating annual financial statements in businesses and other organizations. In many jurisdictions, regulations regarding accounting require such reports once per twelve months, but do not require that the twelve months constitute a calendar year.
  • An academic year is the annual period during which a student attends an educational institution. The academic year may be divided into academic terms such as semesters or quarters. Schools break the year into two main semesters, a first (typically August through December) and a second semester (January through May). Each of these main semesters may be split in half by mid-term exams.
  • The Julian year, as used in astronomy and other sciences, is a time unit defined as exactly 365.25 days. This is the normal meaning of the unit “year” (symbol “a” from the Latin annus) used in various scientific contexts. The Julian century of 36525 days and the Julian millennium of 365250 days, by convention, the Julian year is used in the computation of the distance covered by a light-year.
  • The draconic year, draconitic year, eclipse year, or ecliptic year is the time taken for the Sun (as seen from the Earth) to complete one revolution with respect to the same lunar node (a point where the Moon’s orbit intersects the ecliptic). This period is associated with eclipses: these occur only when both the Sun and the Moon are near these nodes; so eclipses occur within about a month of every half eclipse year. Hence there are two eclipse seasons every eclipse year.
  • The lunar year comprises twelve full cycles of the phases of the Moon, as seen from Earth. It has duration of approximately 354.37 days. Muslims use this for celebrating their Eids and for marking the start of the fasting month of Ramdan.

 

A Chinese calendar

A Chinese calander

 
  • The vague year, from annus vagus or wandering year, is an integral approximation to the year equaling 365 days, which wanders in relation to more exact years. Typically the vague year is divided into 12 schematic months of 30 days each plus 5 epagomenal days. The vague year was used in the calendars of Ancient Egypt, Iran, Armenia and in Mesoamerica among the Aztecs and Maya, although the Aztecs and Maya used 18 months of 20 days, plus a 5 day epagomenal month.
  • A heliacal year is the interval between the heliacal risings of a star. It differs from the sidereal year for stars away from the ecliptic due mainly to the precessions of equinoxes.
  • The Sothic year is the interval between heliacal risings of the star Sirius. It is currently less than the Sidereal year and its duration is very close to the mean Julian year of 365.25 days.
  • The Gaussian year is the side real year for a planet of negligible mass (relative to the Sun) and unperturbed by other planets that is governed by the Gaussian gravitational constant. Such a planet would be slightly closer to the Sun than Earth’s mean distance
  • The Besselian calender is a tropical year that starts when the (fictitious) mean Sun reaches an ecliptic longitude of 280°.This is currently on or close to January 1. It is named after the 19th-century German astronomer and mathematician Friedrich Bessel.
  • The Green year speed is variable.
  • The Galactic year is the time it takes Earth’s solar system to revolve once around the galactic center. It comprises roughly 230 million Earth years.

My My….so much for just one word….

May this new year take you beyond the horizon of happiness, Joy, abundance of laughter you wished for.

More importantly, may you be bestowed with all the strength to do what you wish and yearn to do.

WISH YOU A PROSPEROUS NEW YEAR !!!!!

Stay Gyaat !!!!

The AKA of all THE SUPERHEROES !!!

Some of Marvel’s well known Movies and T.V Shows:

Spider Man Series, Daredevil,The Hulk and The Agents of S.M.A.S.H,Thor, X-Men Series, Cpt. America,The Avengers,The Ultimate Spiderman, Iron Man Series

The Agents of S.H.E.I.D,Fangasm,The Hulk Series,Who wants to be a Superhero?,The Fantastic Four Series, Stan Lee’s Super Humans, Iron Man Series, The Super Hero Squad Show

It was announced in February 2013 that one of Lee’s recently-created characters, the Annihilator, a Chinese prisoner-turned-superhero named Ming, would be adapted into a film written by Dan Gilroy and produced by Barry Josephson.

Stan Lee, with artist Jack Kirby created the Hulk, Iron Man, Thor and the X-men and Marvel’s most successful character, Spider-man. The first superhero group Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby created was The Fantastic Four. 

Stan Lee’s Marvel revolution extended beyond the characters and storylines to the way in which comic books engaged the readership and built a sense of community between fans and creators. In later years, Lee became a figurehead and public face for Marvel Comics

Lee was briefly president of the entire company, but soon stepped down to become publisher instead, finding that being president was too much about numbers and finance and not enough about the creative process he enjoyed.

In the 2000s, Lee did his first work for DC Comics, launching the Just Imagine… series, in which Lee re-imagined the DC superheroes SupermanBatmanWonder WomanGreen Lantern and The FlashMarvel commemorated Lee’s 65 years with the company by publishing a series of one-shot comics starring Lee himself meeting and interacting with many of his co-creations, including Spider-Man, Doctor Strange, the Thing, Silver Surfer.

Stan Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber, December 28, 1922) is an American comic book writer, editor, publisher, media producer, television host, actor, voice actor and former president and chairman of Marvel comics.

In collaboration with several artists, most notably Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko, he co-created Spider-man, the Hulk, the Fantastic Four, Iron Man, Thor, and many other fictional characters, introducing complex, naturalistic characters and a thoroughly shared universe into superhero comic books. In addition, he headed the first major successful challenge to the industry’s censorship organization; the Comics code Authority, and forced it to reform its policies.

With the help of his uncle Robbie Solomon, Lee started asassistant in 1939 at the new Timely Comics division of pulp magazine and comic-book publisher Martin Goodman’s company. Marshaling his childhood ambition to be a writer, young Stanley Lieber made his comic-book debut with the text filler “Captain America Foils the Traitor’s Revenge” in Captain America Comics No. 3 (May 1941). He entered the United States America in early 1942 and served stateside in the Signal Corps, writing manuals, training films, and slogans, and occasionally cartooning. Vincent Fago, editor of Timely’s “animation comics” section, which put out humor and funny animal comics, filled in until Lee returned from his World War II military service in 1945. In the late 1950s, DC Comics editor Julius Schwartz revived the superhero archetype and experienced a significant success with its updated version of the Flash, and later with super-team the Justice League of America. In response, publisher Martin Goodman assigned Lee to create a new superhero team.

Lee’s wife urged him to experiment with stories he preferred, since he was planning on changing careers and had nothing to lose. Lee acted on that advice, giving his superheroes a flawed humanity, a change from the ideal archetypes that were typically written for preteens. Before this, most superheroes were idealistically perfect people with no serious, lasting problems.

  • At the 2007 Comic-Con International, Marvel Legends introduced a Stan Lee action figure. The body beneath the figure’s removable cloth wardrobe is a re-used mold of a previously released Spider-Man action figure, with minor changes.
  •  In 2008, Lee wrote humorous captions for the political fumetti book Stan Lee Presents Election Daze: What Are They Really Saying?
  • In 2009, he and the Japanese company Bones produced itsfirst manga featureheroman, serialized in Square Enix’s: Monthly Shōnen Gangan; the feature was adapted to anime in April 2010.
  • In August 2011, Lee announced his support for the Eagle Initiative, a program to find new talent in the comic book field.
  • In April 2012, Lee announced his partnership with Regina Carpinelli, the foun,der and CEO of Comikaze Expo. Comikaze Expo, Los Angeles’ largest comic book convention.
  • At the 2012 San Diego Comic-Con International, Lee announced his new You tube channel, Stan lee’s world of heroes, which airs several programs created by Lee and other creators, including Mark Hamill, Peter David, Adrianne Curry and Bonnie Burton.

 

Who taught us the basics of flying ???

Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet of Brompton (27 December 1773 – 15 December 1857) was a prolific English engineer and one of the most important people in the history of Aeronautics. He is considered as the first true scientific aerial investigator and the first person to understand the underlying principles and forces of flight by far.

 In 1799 he set forth the concept of the modern aeroplane as a fixed wing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion, and control. He was considered to be the Pioneer of Aeronautical Engineering and many considered him as an Father of Aeronautics.

He discovered and identified the four aerodynamic forces of flight: weight, lift, drag, and thrust, which act on any flying vehicle. Modern aeroplane design is based on these discoveries. He is credited with the first major breakthrough in heavier-than-air flight and he worked over half a century before the development of powered flight, being acknowledged by the Wright Brothers. He designed the first actual model of an aeroplane and also diagrammed the elements of vertical flight.

 In 1838 he helped found the UK’s first Polytechnic Institute; the Royal Polytechnic Institution (now University of Westminster). Captured by the optimism of the times, he engaged in a wide variety of engineering projects. Among the many things that he developed are self-righting lifeboats, tension-spoke wheels, the “Universal Railway” (his term for caterpillar tractors), automatic signals for railway crossings, seat belts, small scale helicopters, and a kind of prototypical internal combustion engine fuelled by gunpowder. He also contributed in the fields of prosthetics, etc.

He wrote a landmark three-part treatise titled “On Aerial Navigation” (1809–1810), which was published in Nicholson’s Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts.

To measure the drag on objects at different speeds and angles of attack, he later built a “whirling-arm apparatus”, a development of earlier work in ballistics and air resistance. He also experimented with rotating wing sections of various forms in the stairwells at Brompton Hall.

He discovered the importance of the dihedral angle for lateral stability in flight, and deliberately set the centre of gravity of many of his models well below the wings for this reason; these mechanics influenced the development of hand gliders. As a result of his investigations into many other theoretical aspects of flight, many now acknowledge him as the first Aeronautical Engineer.

The model glider successfully flown by Cayley in 1804 had the layout of a modern aircraft, with a kite-shaped wing towards the front and an adjustable tail plane at the back comprising horizontal stabilizers and a vertical fin.

 There are display boards and a video film at the Royal Air Force Museum London in Hendon, honoring Cayley’s achievements and a modern exhibition and film “Pioneers of Aviation” at the Yorkshire Air Museum, Elvington,York.